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Browsing items in: EHSL - Moran Eye Center Neuro-Ophthalmology Collection

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    • 2-37a - Vascular Features

    • 2-37a
    • When looking at the disc, the central retinal artery and vein should be visible. The central retinal artery is usually slightly narrower than the vein. When the central retinal artery goes though the lamina cribrosa, the artery becomes smaller...
    • Vascular Features
    • 2-37b - Vascular Features

    • 2-37b
    • When looking at the disc, the central retinal artery and vein should be visible. The central retinal artery is usually slightly narrower than the vein. When the central retinal artery goes though the lamina cribrosa, the artery becomes smaller...
    • Vascular Features
    • 2-4a - Disc Anatomy

    • 2-4a
    • The optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal...
    • Disc Anatomy
    • 2-53a - Venous Pulsations

    • 2-53a
    • On the disc, look for spontaneous venous pulsations. Spontaneous venous pulsations can be seen in the large trunks of veins at the level of the disc margin. They are normally present and seen in 37-90% of normals -- depending on the experience of...
    • Venous Pulsations
    • 2-53b - Venous Pulsations

    • 2-53b
    • On the disc, look for spontaneous venous pulsations. Spontaneous venous pulsations can be seen in the large trunks of veins at the level of the disc margin. They are normally present and seen in 37-90% of normals -- depending on the experience of...
    • Venous Pulsations
    • 2-7a - Disc Anatomy

    • 2-7a
    • The optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal...
    • Disc Anatomy
    • 3 Step Test

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-20
    • Demonstration of patient examination.
    • 3 Step Test, Fourth Nerve Palsy; Ocular Motility; Fourth (Trochlear)
    • 3-31b - Papilledema Stages

    • 3-31b
    • Grading Papilledema: Stage 0 GRADING PAPILLEDEMA GRADING PAPILLEDEMA We grade papilledema in order to tell us how severe it is. The most sensible grading scheme has been provided by Lars Frisén. STAGE 0: This woman had documented increased...
    • Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
    • 3-32b - Papilledema Stages

    • 3-32b
    • Grading Papilledema: Stage 1 Stage 1 = C shaped blurring of the nasal, superior and inferior borders. Usually the temporal margin is normal. Also notice the chorio-retinal folds (arrows) that eminate toward the macula (m)
    • Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
    • 3-33b - Papilledema Stages

    • 3-33b
    • Grading Papilledema: Stage 2 = Elevation of the disc margin 360 degrees. Since the blood vessels at the disc margin are not swollen or obscured, this disc could be mistaken for pseudo-papilledema.
    • Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
    • 3-34c Papilledema Stages

    • 3-34c
    • Grading Papilledema: Stage 3 Stage 3 = Elevation of the entire disc with partial obscuration of the retinal vessels at the disc margin. Here the vessels are partly obscured and make the development into stage 3 easier to call.
    • Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
    • 3-35a - Papilledema Stages

    • 3-35a
    • Grading Papilledema: Stage 4 Stage 4 = Complete obliteration of the cup and complete obscuration of at least some vessels on the surface of the disc. There may be small dilated capillaries on the disc that resemble telangiectasia. It is not the NFL...
    • Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
    • 3-36a - Papilledema Stages

    • 3-36a
    • Grading Papilledema: Stage 5 Stage 5 = Dome-shaped appearance with all vessels being obscured. (Sometimes called "champagne cork" swelling--because of its dome shape.)
    • Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
    • 3-4 - Tilted Disc

    • 3-4
    • Tilted discs are normal variants caused by oblique insertion of the optic nerve to the globe. They can be and frequently are mistaken for papilledema. In this case the superior edge of the disc is tilted and appears elevated. This disc exhibits a...
    • Tilted Disc
    • 3-59a - Glioma

    • 3-59a
    • This 45-year-old man presented with vision loss in his right eye; his examination showed severe disc swelling in this eye and vision loss on visual field testing (3-59a). MRI with fat saturation and enhancement and MRI with T2 signals also confirm...
    • Glioma
    • 3-59c - Glioma

    • 3-59c
    • This 45-year-old man presented with vision loss in his right eye; his examination showed severe disc swelling in this eye and vision loss on visual field testing (3-59a). MRI with fat saturation and enhancement and MRI with T2 signals also confirm...
    • Glioma
    • 3-5b - Myelinated Nerve Fibers

    • 3-5b
    • Myelinated nerve fibers are frequently confused with papilledema. The feathery edge of the myelinated fibers that conceal the disc and vessel should provide the clue. These myelinated nerve fibers make the disc look blurred.
    • Myelinated Nerve Fibers
    • 3-60a - Meningioma

    • 3-60a
    • This 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d:...
    • Meningioma
    • 3-60b - Meningioma

    • 3-60b
    • This 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d:...
    • Meningioma
    • 3-60d - Meningioma

    • 3-60d
    • This 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d:...
    • Meningioma
    • 3-64a - Shunt Vessels (CRVO)

    • 3-64a
    • This man with a chronic CRVO and retino-choroidal collaterals developed AION and his collaterals disappeared. CRVO with retinochoroidal collaterals is almost always associated with multiple peripheral dot and blot hemorrhages as well as nerve fiber...
    • Shunt Vessels (CRVO)
    • 3-65 - Shunt Vessels (Glaucoma)

    • 3-65
    • Chronic end-stage glaucoma produces high pressure that interferes with venous drainage from the disc and broad smooth venous collaterals drain the disc centrifugally to the disc margin where they drain.
    • Shunt Vessels (Glaucoma)
    • 3-66a - Shunt Vessels (post-papilledema)

    • 3-66a
    • The retino-choroidal collaterals seen with chronic papilledema begin with a "Hairnet" of telangiectasias that gradually winnow down to one or more large collateral tortuous draining channel. The presence of these vessels is evidence of long...
    • Shunt Vessels (post-papilledema)
    • 3-66d - Shunt Vessels (post-papilledema)

    • 3-66d
    • The retino-choroidal collaterals seen with chronic papilledema begin with a "Hairnet" of telangiectasias that gradually winnow down to one or more large collateral tortuous draining channel. The presence of these vessels is evidence of long...
    • Shunt Vessels (post-papilledema)
    • 4-35 - Cupped Optic Nerve

    • 4-35
    • Atrophic Glaucoma Atrophic glaucomatous discs show thinning of the neuro-retinal rim, "saucerization" (which is shallow cupping), evidence of peripapillary atrophy, and pallor of the very narrow neuroretinal rim. Notice that there is severe atrophy...
    • Cupped Optic Nerve
    • 4-52b - Dominant Optic Neuropathy

    • 4-52b
    • A son presented with bilateral optic atrophy of unknown etiology after he failed a school visual exam. When looking for dominant optic atrophy, look at the parents. Mother was examined to find similar kind of atrophy. 4-52a mother, 4-52b son.
    • Dominant Optic Neuropathy
    • 4-60a - Dominant Optic Neuropathy

    • 4-60a
    • A son presented with bilateral optic atrophy of unknown etiology after he failed a school visual exam. When looking for dominant optic atrophy, look at the parents. Mother was examined to find similar kind of atrophy. 4-60a mother, 4-60b son.
    • Dominant Optic Neuropathy
    • Abducting (Dissociated) Nystagmus

    • 2-7
    • Example of a patient with abducting (dissociated) nystagmus. Patient has a subtle internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Right eye has right-beating jerk nystagmus, with smaller oscillations in the left eye.
    • Abducting Nystagmus; Dissociated nystagmus
    • Aberrant Regeneration of the Lid

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-19
    • Patient with left third nerve palsy demonstrates anisocoria and mild vertical gaze limitation and aberrant movement of the left upper lid. Patient is instructed through all gaze positions. Left upper lid does not descend during downgaze but...
    • Third Nerve Palsy; Aberrant Regeneration of Third Nerve; Aberrant Reinnervation of Third Nerve
    • Aberrant regeneration of the right pupil

    • Figure-15
    • Aberrant regeneration of the right pupil in a man with a large intracavernous sinus meningioma causing a pupil-involving, incomplete third cranial nerve palsy. His pupil is round when he gazes straight ahead (top). When he tries to rotate the eye...
    • Pupil Disorders; Aberrant Regeneration; Third Nerve Palsy
    • Aberrant Regeneration of the Seventh Nerve

    • 1-19
    • Examples of patients with aberrant regeneration of the seventh nerve. First example is a patient with contractions around the mouth and dimpling, demonstrated with slow and rapid eye blinking. Second example shows contraction around nose with eye...
    • Aberrant Regeneration of the Seventh Nerve; Aberrant Regeneration
    • Aberrant Regeneration of the Third

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-28
    • Patient with a right third nerve palsy demonstrates ptosis, anisocoria and ophthalmoplegia. During attempted downgaze, the right upper lid flutters back up (aberrant movement) and remains retracted.
    • Third Nerve Palsy; Aberrant Regeneration
    • Amsler Grid Testing

    • Amsler_Grid
    • Demonstration of Amsler Grid examination.
    • Examination, Ocular; Amsler Grid
    • An enhancing bladder metastasis involving the tectum of the midbrain

    • Figure-12
    • Magnetic resonance image of an enhancing bladder metastasis involving the tectum of the midbrain of a 56-year-old man who developed double vision resulting from skew deviation and divergence insufficiency. He also had a left-sided relative afferent...
    • Pupil/physiology; Reflex, Pupillary
    • Anatomy of the oculosympathetic pathway

    • Figure-04
    • Anatomy of the oculosympathetic pathway. (Maloney WF, Younge BR, Moyer NJ: Evaluation of the causes and accuracy of pharmacologic localization in Horner's syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1980;90:394–402, Ophthalmic Publishing Company with permission.)
    • Anatomy of the oculosympathetic pathway; Horner's syndrome
    • Anatomy of the pupillary light reflex pathway

    • Figure-02
    • Anatomy of the pupillary light reflex pathway. (Miller NR: Walsh And Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, p 421. Vol 2, 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1985, with permission.)
    • Reflex, Pupillary; Parasympathetic Pupil
    • Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    • Digre_AION
    • PPT describing Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (AION). Covers clinical signs, such as monocular vision loss, swollen nerve, and visual field defects, as well as risk factors.
    • Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
    • Argyll Robertson pupils

    • Figure-14
    • Argyll Robertson pupils in an elderly man treated for tabes dorsalis in 1952. His pupils are small and slightly irregular, constrict poorly in response to light stimulation (top), dilate poorly in darkness (middle), but constrict promptly in...
    • Argyll-Robertson pupil; Pupil Disorders/diagnosis; Pupil Disorders/etiology; Pupil Disorders/history; Pupil Disorders/pathology
    • Assessment of an afferent pupillary defect when only one iris is functional

    • Figure-10
    • Assessment of an afferent pupillary defect when only one iris is functional. In this example, a right-sided parasellar tumor is compressing both the optic and oculomotor nerves, causing an optic neuropathy and a pupil-involving third crainial nerve...
    • Pupil Disorders; RAPD; Afferent Pupillary Defect;
    • Basic Eye Alignment Exam

    • Basic_Eye_Alignment
    • Demonstration of basic eye alignment examination. Includes: a. Tools b. Cover-Uncover and SPCT c. Alternate Cover and APCT d. Maddox Rod Testing
    • Examination, Ocular; Basic Eye Alignment
    • Basic Headache

    • Basic Headache.pdf
    •  
    • Headache; Migraine;
    • Before Tensilon

    • 1-24
    • Example of patient with myasthenia gravis. Demonstration of baseline examination, followed by administration of 2mg of tensilon, which is a test dose. Procedure for administration of tensilon test is described, including variations. Patient is then...
    • Myasthenia gravis; Tensilon Test;
    • Bilateral Facial Myokymia

    • 1-21
    • Example of a patient with a brain stem glioma. Shows bilateral facial myokymia.
    • Bilateral Facial Myokymia; Facial Myokymia
    • Bilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-30
    • Example of patient with bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Patient is led through instructions for direction and distance of gaze.
    • Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia
    • Bilateral iris colobomas

    • coloboma.jpg
    • Coloboma literally means a "gap"-and can be used to describe any fissure, hole, or gap in the eye. The term most often is used to refer to a congenital gap in the disc, retina, the choroid, and the iris. Colobomas occur because the embryonic...
    • Congenital pupillary abnormalities; Pupil; Pupil Disorders/etiology; Pupil Disorders/pathology; Correctopia
    • Bilateral iris colobomas (B)

    • Figure-19B
    • Bilateral iris colobomas. B. Bilateral colobomatous defects of the inferonasal retina (black arrows) are also present, as shown in the right eye.
    • Congenital pupillary abnormalities; Pupil; Pupil Disorders/etiology; Pupil Disorders/pathology
    • Bilateral Ptosis

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-31
    •  
    • Bilateral Ptosis, Nuclear Third
    • Binocular Pendular Nystagmus

    • 2-10
    • Example of a patient with binocular pendular nystagmus. Patient has somewhat dissociated nystagmus, with nystagmus seen more prominently in the left eye. Patient shows an occasional jerk nystagmus to the right in the right eye. Left eye...
    • Binocular Pendular Nystagmus; Pendular Nystagmus; Acquired Pendular Nystagmus
    • Blepharospasm

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-5
    • Example of patient with blepharospasm. Patient is led through instructions for direction of gaze and opening and closing of eyes. Patient is led through same exercises again after receiving indomethacin treatment.
    • Blepharospasm
    • Brun's Nystagmus

    • 2-11
    • Observation of patient with Brun’s Nystagmus. Shows patient gazing to the right and the nystagmus beating in the direction of the gaze.
    • Brun's Nystagmus; Cyclical
    • Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

    • occlusion
    •  
    • Central Retinal Artery Occlusion; Vasospastic Amaurosis Fugax; Central Retinal Artery Occlusions; Stroke to Eye; Carotid Artery Distribution Stroke;
    • Cogan's Lid Twitch

    • 1-25
    • Example of a patient with Cogan’s lid twitch, with discussion of how to detect it in an exam.
    • Cogan's Lid Twitch; Lid Twitch
    • Color Vision Testing

    • Color_Vision
    • Demonstration of color vision examination.
    • Examination, Ocular; Color Vision
    • Cone Dystrophy

    • Cone Dystrophy.pdf
    • PPT covering Cone Dystrophy - An inherited degeneration that presents between 10 - 30 years of age. Symptoms are decreased visual acuity, poor color vision, and sometimes light sensitivity.
    • Cone Dystrophy; central cone dystrophy
    • Congenital Nystagmus

    • 2-1
    • Example of patients with congenital nystagmus. First patient’s nystagmus are mostly jerk and not pendular. Second patient’s nystagmus are mostly pendular. Both patients show a uniform horizontal oscillation. Second patient also shows...
    • Congenital Nystagmus
    • Congenital Nystagmus

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-30
    • Patient with congenital nystagmus (no audio)
    • Congenital Nystagmus
    • Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia

    • 1-17
    • Two examples of congenital ocular motor apraxia. Patients have trouble initiating saccades, and compensate with head movement. Discussion of how to distinguish this condition from simply not seeing well.
    • Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia
    • Convergence Retraction Nystagmus (Parinaud's Syndrome)

    • 2-21
    • Examples of patients with convergence retraction nystagmus. Shows saccadic oscillations in patients looking upwards and following downwards moving targets. Also shows a side-view of the retracting movements of the globes.
    • Convergence Retraction Nystagmus; Parinaud's Syndrome; Dorsal Midbrain Syndrome; Lid retraction
    • CPEO

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-10
    • Patient with Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia (CPEO)
    • CPEO; Myopathic; Sporadic CPEO
    • Cyclic Oculomotor Palsy

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-11
    • Example of patient with cyclic oculomotor palsy.
    • Cyclic Oculomotor Palsy; Cyclical; Cyclic Oculomotor Paresis
    • Dilation Lag

    • 1-2
    • Two examples of dilation lag (Horner’s syndrome). In the first example, the right pupil dilates much faster than the left pupil when the light is turned out. In the second example, the left pupil dilates much faster than the right pupil when the...
    • Dilation Lag; Horner Syndrome; Horner's Syndrome
    • Dissociated Nystagmus

    • 2-14
    • Example of a patient with dissociated nystagmus. Demonstrates difference in movements between each eye.
    • Dissociated Nystagmus
    • Downbeat Nystagmus

    • 2-6
    • Example of patients with downbeating jerk nystagmus. Demonstrates how oscillations grow more prominent when the patient gazes down or laterally. Discusses some causes, including Arnold-Chiari malformation, infarction, and demyelination.
    • Downbeat Nystagmus
    • Downbeat Nystagmus

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-1
    • Example of patient with downbeat nystagmus. Patient is led through instructions of where to gaze. (no audio)
    • Downbeat Nystagmus
    • Downbeat Nystagmus

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-9
    • Example of patient with downbeat nystagmus. Patient is led through instructions of where to gaze.
    • Downbeat Nystagmus
    • Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type 1; Lid retraction

    • 1-10
    • Example of patients with Duane’s Retraction Syndrome, Type 1. Description of components of Duane’s Syndrome: limitation of abduction, variable limitation of adduction, and palpebral fissure narrowing and globe retraction with attempted...
    • Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type 1; Duane's Syndrome
    • Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type 3

    • 1-12
    • Example of a patient with Type 3 Duane’s Retraction Syndrome, as well as bilateral Duane’s Syndrome. Shows limitation of abduction in both eyes and adduction in the left eye. Also shows side-view of globe retraction in abduction.
    • Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type 3; Lid retraction
    • Duane's Syndrome

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-23
    • Example of patient with Duane’s Syndrome. Patient is led through instructions for pursuit.
    • Duane's Syndrome
    • Duane's Syndrome Type I

    • Bell_J_Duanes_type_1
    • Clip of patient with Duane's Syndrome Type I. Presented at the Neurology Grand Rounds in Fall 2011 at the University of Utah. Presentation can be found in this collection at: Why Don't You See Double?...
    • Duane's Syndrome; Duane's Type I
    • Duane's Syndrome Type III

    • Bell_J_Duanes_type_III
    • Clip of patient with Duane's Syndrome Type III. Presented at the Neurology Grand Rounds in Fall 2011 at the University of Utah. Presentation can be found in this collection at: Why Don't You See Double?...
    • Duane's Syndrome; Duane's Type III;
    • Dysthyroid optic neuropathy: A preventable cause of blindness

    • weinberg_1.pdf
    • Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy (DON) is a treatable cause of visual loss in ~5% of pts w/ ted. Monitor closely those pts with risk factors (proptosis, tight orbit, restricted motility, strabismus, smoker, diabetic). Oral prednisone is often...
    • Dysthyroid ophthalmopathy; Thyroid orbitopathy; Thyroid eye disease; Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO); Graves' disease; Restrictive orbitopathy;
    • Enhanced mydriasis in response to hydroxyamphetamine

    • Figure-23
    • Enhanced mydriasis in response to hydroxyamphetamine in a 77-year-old woman with a long-standing, preganglionic, right-sided Horner's syndrome that occurred following cervical neck dissection for thoracic outlet syndrome 30 years earlier. Miosis of...
    • p-Hydroxyamphetamine/diagnostic use; p-Hydroxyamphetamine/pharmacology; Pupil/drug effects; Amphetamines/pharmacology; Horner Syndrome/diagnosis; testing, pupillary drop; Effects of Drugs on the Pupils
    • Exophthalmometry

    • Exophthalmometry
    • Demonstration of exophthalmometry examination.
    • Examination, Ocular; Exophthalmometry
    • Eyelid Measurements

    • Eyelid_Measurements
    • Demonstration of eyelid measurements examination.
    • Examination, Ocular; Eyelid Measurements
    • Facial Myokymia Unilateral

    • 1-20
    • Example of patient with facial myokymia, a disorder of the seventh nerve, probably due to brain stem involvement. Patient has multiple sclerosis. Discussion of characteristics, such as continuous, undulating, contractions in the distribution of the...
    • Superior Oblique Myokymia; Facial Myokymia Unilateral; Facial Myokymia
    • Flow chart for sorting out anisocoria - bright light and darkness

    • Figure-26
    • Flow chart for sorting out anisocoria based initially on how it is influenced by bright light and darkness.
    • Anisocoria; Adie Syndrome/diagnosis; Cocaine/diagnostic use; Constriction; Dark Adaptation; Diagnosis, Differential; Dilatation; Eye Diseases/diagnosis; Eye Diseases/physiopathology; Horner Syndrome/diagnosis; Humans; Iris/innervation; Methacholine...
    • Flow chart for sorting out anisocoria - direct light reaction of the pupil

    • Figure-25
    • Flow chart for sorting out anisocoria based initially on the integrity of the direct light reaction of the pupil.
    • Anisocoria; Adie Syndrome/diagnosis; Cocaine/diagnostic use; Constriction; Dark Adaptation; Diagnosis, Differential; Dilatation; Eye Diseases/diagnosis; Eye Diseases/physiopathology; Horner Syndrome/diagnosis; Humans; Iris/innervation; Methacholine...
    • Flutter in Downgaze

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-8
    • Examination of patient with flutter in downgaze (no audio)
    • Downgaze, Eye Flutter
    • Fourth Nerve Palsy

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-22
    • Demonstration of examination of patient who experienced blurry vision and pain in the left eye. Demonstrates checking of eye movements, focusing on object while each eye is covered and uncovered, turning head both ways and repeating. Shows...
    • Fourth Nerve Palsy, 3 Step Test
    • Fusional Vergence Amplitudes

    • Fusional_Vergence
    • Demonstration of fusional vergence amplitudes examination. Incluudes: a. Convergence Amplitudes b. Divergence Amplitudes c. Vertical Ampitudes
    • Examination, Ocular; Fusional Vergence Amplitudes
    • Gaze Palsy with Facial Weakness from Pontine AVM

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-6
    • Example of a patient with torsional nystagmus in both eyes and pendular nystagmus in the left eye. Patient is led through instructions for direction of gaze.
    • Gaze Palsy, Facial Weakness, Pontine AVM
    • Glaucoma: the basics

    • Glaucoma the basics.pdf
    • Glaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy. Progressive cupping of the optic disc due to increased intraocular pressure together with visual field abnormalities and local disc susceptibility factors characterize this neuropathy. This PowerPoint...
    • Glaucoma; Optic Neuropathy
    • Hand-held equipment used to measure a relative afferent pupillary defect

    • Figure-11
    • Hand-held equipment used to measure a relative afferent pupillary defect and to record pupil sizes. Four neutral density filters (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2 log units) are conveniently carried in a soft cloth carrying pouch. A bright light source (a...
    • RAPD; Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect; pupil; Reflex, Pupillary; Pupil Disorders; Afferent Pupillary Defect;
    • Hemifacial Spasm

    • 1-18
    • Example of patients with hemifacial spasm. First patient has a sequela of Bell’s palsy, and is seen to have mainly clonic movements around the eye, with occasional tonic movements around the mouth. Second patient has a cerebellopontine angle...
    • Hemifacial Spasm

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