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Browsing items in: EHSL - Moran Eye Center Neuro-Ophthalmology Collection

(202 results)

Display: 100

    • Why Don't You See Double?

    • Bell_J_Neuro_GR_Duanes_PPT
    • This presentation was given at the Neurology Grand Rounds in Fall 2011 at the University of Utah. A number of Duane Syndrome cases are covered. Related video can be found in this collection at: Duane's Syndrome Type...
    • Duane's Syndrome; Duane's Type I; Duane's Type III;
    • Wall-Eyed Bilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (WEBINO)

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-17
    • Example of patient with horizontal binocular diplopia. Demonstration of exam, which shows alternating exotropia in cover test. As patient follows object, right eye does not pass the midline as the object moves to the left, while left eye go...
    • Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia, WEBINO
    • Voluntary Nystagmus

    • 2-22
    • Example of patient with voluntary nystagmus. Discussion of how a lack of uniform, patterned movement of the eyes along with associated lid movements suggests that activity is voluntary.
    • Voluntary Nystagmus; Voluntary Flutter
    • Vestibular Nystagmus

    • 2-15
    • Discussion of vestibular nystagmus. Seen with peripheral disorders and central disorders, and in two varieties: spontaneous and positional. Horizontal jerk with small amplitude.
    • Vestibular Nystagmus; Jerk Nystagmus; Peripheral Vestibular Nystagmus; Positional Nystagmus
    • Vestibular Nystagmus

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-22
    • Example of patient with vestibular nystagmus. Patient is led through instructions for direction of gaze. Shown also with Frenzel goggles.
    • Vestibular Nystagmus
    • Upbeat Nystagmus

    • 2-5
    • Example of a patient with upbeat nystagmus. Shows vertical jerk nystagmus with fast phases in the up direction. Localizes to brain stem, and occurs with strokes, demyelination, and tumors.
    • Upbeat Nystagmus; Blepharospasm
    • Unilateral Blepharospasm

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-16
    • Example of patient with unilateral blepharospasm.
    • Blepharospasm
    • Transillumination - Lisch nodules

    • 1-29
    • Demonstration of transillumination of the Lisch nodules on a patient with neurofibromatosis. Shows how Lisch nodules that were not very visible in slit-lamp examination are better seen with transillumination, which may therefore be useful in...
    • Transillumination; Examination, Ocular; Lisch nodules; Neurofibromatosis1
    • Transillumination - Ciliary Body Neurofibromas1

    • 1-28
    • Example of transillumination on a patient with neurofibromatosis, but without Lisch nodules. Shows suspected neurofibromas in the ciliary body.
    • Transillumination; Examination, Ocular; Ciliary Body Neurofibromas1; Neurofibromatosis1
    • Tour of the Fundus

    • TheTour
    • This clip demonstrates the funduscopic examination technique.
    • Fundus; Examination, Ocular; Normal optic disc; AVP Macula; AVP Optic Nerve; Ophthalmoscopes
    • Tour of the Direct Ophthalmoscope

    • How2use
    • This clip describes the parts and operation of the ophthalmoscope as an ocular examination tool. Includes adjustment of aperture size and adjustment of lenses.
    • Direct Ophthalmoscope; Examination, Ocular;
    • Tilted Discs

    • Tilted_Discs_KBD.pdf
    • Short PowerPoint discussion of tilted discs with illustrations and images.
    • Tilted Disc
    • Third Nerve Palsy, Pupil Involving

    • 1-5
    • Example of patient with third nerve palsy. Left eye shows pupilary involvement. Left eye doesn’t immediately duct, but abducts well, with impaired superduction. Secondary and primary deviations are demonstrated. Anisocoria is more prominent when...
    • Pupil; Third Nerve Palsy; Third nerve dysfunction
    • Third Nerve Palsy

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-15
    • Patient with third nerve palsy (no audio)
    • Third Nerve Palsy
    • The Wall-Eyed Potato Farmer

    • walsh_2000_c30
    • Young man presenting with apparent episodic neurologic evants that initially was thought to be multiple sclerosis, but as time went on, he had progressive changes in his neurologic exam and in his imaging findings. Brain biopsy revealed Gliomatosis...
    • Gliomatosis Cerebri; Intracranial Tumors; Bilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia
    • The normal pupillary light reflex

    • Figure-06
    • The normal pupillary light reflex is initiated following exposure to light. After a brief latency, both the right (solid line) and left (broken line) pupil constrict, then undergo a small amount of redilation (escape), followed by oscillations...
    • Reflex, Pupillary; Examination, Pupillary;
    • The course of the postganglionic segment of the oculosympathetic fibers from the internal carotid...

    • Figure-05
    • The course of the postganglionic segment of the oculosympathetic fibers from the internal carotid artery (ICA) to the orbit is depicted as a dotted line. Note that they briefly join the abducens nerve (cranial nerve VI) before joining the...
    • Sympathetic; Horner Syndrome/diagnosis; Pupil/physiology; Pupil; Cervical Artery Dissection; Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection/diagnosis; Parasympathetic Pupil
    • Testing the Visual Fields

    • Visual_Fields
    • Demonstration of various methods of testing visual fields, including counting fingers, motion, and color of several objects.
    • Visual Fields; Examination, Ocular; Visual Field Loss
    • Tadpole-shaped pupil

    • Figure-28
    • Tadpole-shaped pupil in a 20-year-old women with frequent episodes of blurred vision and achiness of the right eye lasting several minutes. The patient took a photograph of her eyes during an attack to document the peaked, segmental dilation of her...
    • Adult; Female; Humans; Iris Diseases/complications; Iris Diseases/diagnosis; Iris Diseases/physiopathology; Pupil; Spasm/complications; Spasm/diagnosis; Spasm/physiopathology; Tadpole pupil
    • Superior Oblique Myokymia

    • 2-19
    • Example of patients with superior oblique myokymia, a saccadic intrusion. First patient is seen to have intermittent, intorting movements with superimposed slight vertical deviations in right eye. Discussion of disorder as benign, but frequently...
    • Superior Oblique Myokymia; Third Nerve Palsy
    • Structures of the iris

    • Figure-01
    • Structures of the iris. The a indicates the anterior border layer that terminates at the pigmentary ruff of the pupillary border (b). The c indicates the iris sphincter muscle, which is oriented circumferentially within the stroma and located deep...
    • autonomic anatomy; iris
    • Stereoacuity Testing

    • Stereoacuity
    • Demonstration of examination for stereoacuity.
    • Examination, Ocular; Stereoacuity
    • Stargardt’s Disease

    • Stargardt’s Disease.pdf
    • Discussion of Stargardt's disease, an inherited maculopathy which frequently presents with a loss of central vision.
    • Stargardt’s Disease; Maculopathy;
    • Stages of Papilledema

    • Stages of Papilledema
    • Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
    • Square Wave Jerks

    • 2-20
    • Example of patient with square wave jerks. Discussion of difference between square wave jerks (saccadic oscillations) and horizontal nystagmus.
    • Square Wave Jerks
    • Spontaneous Venous Pulsations

    • pulse
    • This clips shows a spontaneous venous pulsation viewed during an ocular examination.
    • Spontaneous Venous Pulsations; Examination, Ocular; AVP Optic Nerve
    • Spasmus Nutans

    • 2-3
    • Example of patient with spasmus nutans. Discussion of characteristics of this disorder, such as dissociated or monocular nystagmus, abnormal head position, and to-and-fro head oscillation. Sometimes an eccentric gaze is seen as well (as in...
    • Spasmus Nutans
    • Spasm of the Near Reflex

    • 1-13
    • Example of patient with spasm of the near reflex and voluntary nystagmus. Discussion of similar-looking conditions (e.g. six nerve palsy, limitation of abduction, lateral rectus muscle problems) and how to tell them apart from spasm of the near...
    • Spasm of the Near Reflex; Spasm of the near triad; Voluntary Nystagmus
    • Shunt Vessel Meningioma - MRI

    • shunt vessel meningioma MRI
    • Meningiomas block venous egress and open potential venous channels known as retinochoroidal (optociliary) collateral vein. This meningioma extends from the back of the globe through the optic canal.
    • Shunt Vessels (Meningioma)
    • Shunt Vessel Meningioma

    • shunt vessel meningioma
    • RETINO-CHOROIDAL (OPTO-CILIARY) COLLATERAL VESSELS: (also known as Retinal-choroidal venous collaterals, opticociliary veins or ciliary shunt vessels) Retino-choroidal collaterals are potential telangiectatic connections between the retina and...
    • Shunt Vessels (Meningioma)
    • See-Saw Nystagmus

    • 2-4
    • Example of a patient with see-saw nystagmus, showing how one eye elevates as the other depresses, with the elevating eye intorting as the depressing eye extorts. Shows vertical oscillations with pendular waveforms. Suggests a large structural...
    • See-Saw Nystagmus
    • See-Saw Nystagmus

    • Katz_seesaw
    • 7-year-old female whose mother noticed her eyes "bouncing" for 2 months. Visual acuity 20/70 OD and 20/40 OS, reduced color vision OU, and no afferent pupillary defect. See-saw nystagmus documented with videography. Manual perimetry revealed a...
    • See-Saw Nystagmus
    • Sector Palsies and Light-Near Dissociation

    • 1-3
    • Example of patient with bilateral Adie’s pupils. Exam is performed with a slit-lamp. Shows iris stroma and focal segments of iris sphincter that retain their contractilty. Suggests post-ganglionic parasympathetic denervation.
    • Sector Palsies; Light-Near Dissociation; Bilateral Adie's Pupil; Adie's Tonic Pupil;
    • Rotary Nystagmus

    • 2-13
    • Example of a patient with rotary nystagmus, showing occasional counterclockwise rotary movements of both eyes. Seen more in intrinsic disorders of the brainstem.
    • Rotary (Torsional) Nystagmus
    • Rotary Downbeat

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-36
    • Patient with rotary downbeat nystagmus (no audio)
    • Rotary Downbeat Nystagmus
    • Right-sided relative afferent pupillary defect

    • Figure-09
    • Right-sided relative afferent pupillary defect in a man with optic nerve glioma. When the unaffected left eye is stimulated by light, both pupils constrict (top). When the light is then swung over to the affected right eye, both pupils dilate...
    • Pupil Disorders; Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect; RAPD; Afferent Pupillary Defect;
    • Right-sided pseudo-Horner's syndrome

    • Figure-22
    • Right-sided pseudo-Horner's syndrome in an 8-month-old infant referred because her mother had noted a larger pupil on the left for a few months and her pediatrician thought the right upper lid was droopy. Both pupils reacted normally to light and...
    • Infant; Horner Syndrome/diagnosis; Horner Syndrome/etiology; Horner's Syndrome
    • Retraction Nystagmus

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-17
    • Patient with retraction nystagmus (no audio)
    • Retraction Nystagmus
    • Retino-choroidal Vessels or Optociliary veins or ciliary shunt

    • Retino-choroidal Vessels or Optociliary veins or ciliary shunt.pdf
    • Overview of retino-choroidal collaterals, which are potential telangiectatic connections between the retina and choroidal circulation. Although sometimes called "shunts", these collaterals are between the retinal venous circulation and the...
    • Retino-choroidal Vessels; Optociliary veins ; Ciliary shunt;
    • Retinitis pigmentosa disease of rods

    • Retinitis pigmentosa disease of rods.pdf
    • Discussion of retinitis pigmentosa which is a retinal/choroidal degeneration caused by various genetic defects.
    • Retinitis pigmentosa; Rods:
    • Retinal Fluorescein Angiography

    • Retinal_Fluorescein_Angiography.ppt
    • This slide set provides a brief description of Retinal Fluorescein Angiography. First introduced in 1960, sodium fluorescein, a dye, is administered through an angiocatheter (3-5cc) by a nurse or technician. The dye reaches the central retinal...
    • Retinal Fluorescein Angiography
    • Relationship between age and pupil size

    • Figure-07
    • Relationship between age and pupil size, determined using an infrared flash photograph technique with subjects placed in darkness for 3 minutes. The numbers above the abscissa indicate the number of subjects tested in each age range. (Reprinted...
    • Pupil/physiology; Management of a Large or a Small Pupil; Normal Pupillary Responses; Pupil Size with Age;
    • Rebound Nystagmus

    • 2-8
    • Example of a patient with rebound nystagmus, where the oscillations alternate direction as the patient shifts gaze in different directions. Discussion of relationship to disease and disorders of the cerebellum, including degenerations of the...
    • Rebound Nystagmus; Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus
    • RAPD Present

    • RAPD_present
    • This clip demonstrates the technique used to determine that Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect (RAPD) is present in a patient.
    • Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect (RAPD); Examination, Pupillary; Afferent Pupillary Defect;
    • Pupillogram of a healthy young subject

    • Figure-08
    • Pupillogram of a healthy young subject showing continuous pupillary oscillations of both pupils when light is sustained, indicated by the dark arrow at the top of the recording. Note that the oscillations of the pupils are synchronous and...
    • Reflex, Pupillary; Pupillogram; Parasympathetic Pupil; Normal Pupillary Responses
    • Pupillogram demonstrating paradoxical pupillary constriction to darkness

    • Figure-27
    • Pupillogram demonstrating paradoxical pupillary constriction to darkness in four patients with congenital achromatopsia. Note that the pupils initially constrict when the light is extinguished. (Price MJ, Thompson HS, Judisch GF et al: Pupillary...
    • Color Vision Defects/congenital; Color Vision Defects/physiopathology; Dark Adaptation; Flynn Phenomenon; Humans; Infrared Rays/diagnostic use; Night Blindness/congenital; Night Blindness/physiopathology; Optic Nerve Diseases/physiopathology;...
    • Pupil signs in a 32-year-old woman with right-sided Adie's pupil

    • Figure-17
    • Pupil signs in a 32-year-old woman with right-sided Adie's pupil. The right pupil is larger than the left pupil (top), reacts poorly to direct light stimulation (second panel), and better in response to near stimulation (third panel). The right...
    • Adie's tonic pupil; Pupil/innervation; Pupil/drug effects; Pupil/physiology
    • Pupil Exam

    • Pupil_Exam
    • Demonstration of pupil examination.
    • Examination, Ocular; Pupil Exam
    • Pulsating Exophthalmos

    • 1-22
    • Example of a patient with neurofibromatosis with an absent sphenoid wing. Shows left eye pulsating back and forth with the pulse from front and side views.
    • Pulsating Exophthalmus
    • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    • 1-14
    • Example of patient with progressive supranuclear palsy. Discussion of difference between saccadic movement in supranuclear palsy and nystagmus. Shows saccadic intrusions in forward gaze, pursuit, saccades, and doll’s head maneuver.
    • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
    • Physiologic (End-Gaze) Nystagmus

    • 2-16
    • Demonstration of physiological nystagmus, where oscillations do not represent pathology, but occur when the patient’s gaze is drawn too far laterally.
    • End-Gaze nystagmus; Physiologic nystagmus
    • Periodic Alternating Nystagmus

    • 2-12
    • Example of a patient with periodic alternating nystagmus, showing an alternation between left-beats and right-beats as the patient maintains forward gaze. Nystagmus maintain horizontal direction regardless of position of gaze.
    • Periodic Alternating Nystagmus
    • Pathophysiology of signs associated with a tonic pupil

    • Figure-16
    • Pathophysiology of signs associated with a tonic pupil. Normally, all parasympathetic fibers of the third cranial nerve synapse in the ciliary ganglion (top). Most postganglionic fibers innervate the ciliary muscle (dashed lines). After injury to...
    • Adie's tonic pupil; Pupil Disorders; Iris/physiopathology; pupil
    • Parinaud's Syndrome

    • 1-16
    • Two examples of patients with Parinaud’s syndrome, a dorsal midbrain syndrome. Discussion of hallmarks of this syndrome, including convergence retraction nystagmus, vertical gaze palsies, light-near dissociation, and Collier’s Sign. Discussion...
    • Parinaud's Syndrome; Dorsal Midbrain Syndrome;
    • Paradoxical Constriction of Pupils to Darkness (Flynn Phenomenon)

    • 1-4
    • Example of patients both with and without paradoxical constriction of pupils. Observed in many congenital retinal disorders, such as achromatopsia, congenital stationary night-blindness, and Leber’s congenital amaurosis. Sometimes seen in optic...
    • Pupil; Flynn Phenomenon
    • Papilledema 2013

    • Papilledema 2013.pdf
    • Discussion of papilledema, the swelling due to increased pressure.
    • Papilledema
    • Optic Disc:  Anatomy, Variants, Unusual discs

    • Optic disc anat variants ophthres 2012.pdf
    • discussion of viewing the optic disc. Includes development of direct ophthalmoscope. Covers normal optic disc and nerve fiber; nerve fiber loss and defects; cilioretinal arteries; venous anomolies; papilledema; pseudopapilledema; myopic disc;...
    • Optic Disc; Anomolies; Anatomy
    • Optic Disc pallor pseudo and real

    • Optic Disc pallor pseudo and real.pdf
    • Discussion of the causes of optic disc pallor.
    • Optic Disc; Optic Atrophy; Pallor;
    • Opsoclonus

    • 1-15b
    • Example of patients with opsoclonus, a saccadic abnormality.
    • Opsoclonus
    • Opsoclonus

    • 1-15
    • Example of patients with opsoclonus, a saccadic abnormality. Discussion of characteristics of opsoclonus, such as involuntary, rapid, brief, random, conjugate saccades. Discussion of possible causes, including brain stem encephalitis (as in first...
    • Opsoclonus
    • Oculopalatal Myoclonus (PPT)

    • Oculopalatal_Myoclonus_LWilliams.pdf
    • Oculopalatal myoclonus (OPM) Rhythmic oscillations of eyes and palate. Occurred after specific brainstem injury from stroke, following stenting. Related Video:,128
    • Oculopalatal Myoclonus
    • Oculopalatal Myoclonus

    • Oculopalatal-Myoclonus-Williams.jpg
    • Oculopalatal myoclonus (OPM) Rhythmic oscillations of eyes and palate. Occurred after specific brainstem injury from stroke, following stenting. Related PowerPoint Presentation:,129
    • Oculopalatal Myoclonus
    • Ocular Myotonia

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-29
    • Example of patient with ocular myotonia. Patient is led through instructions for direction of gaze and opening and closing of eyes. Right eye is shown to be stuck in position after held gaze to the left and right, with very slow relaxation back...
    • Ocular Myotonia; Ocular Neuromyotonia; Dystrophies
    • Ocular Myasthenia

    • 1-23
    • Example of patient with myasthenia gravis. Demonstration of tensilon test. Patient shown to have bilateral ptosis, bilateral duction deficits, and left hypertropia. Discussion of techniques to observe subtle changes, such as bringing in a neutral...
    • Ocular Myasthenia; Myasthenia gravis; Ptosis -- Myasthenic; Tensilon Test
    • Ocular Lateropulsion (Wallenberg's Syndrome)

    • 1-9
    • Example of patient with ocular lateropulsion. Patient also has central Horner syndrome and nystagmus in right gaze. When shifting gaze back to forward, eyes overshoot their mark. Eyes laterally deviate to the right upon opening.
    • Ocular Lateropulsion; Wallenberg's Syndrome; Lateropulsion; Lateral Medullary Syndrome; Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery; Wallenberg Syndrome
    • Ocular Flutter

    • 2-17
    • Two examples of patients, the first with rotary, flutter-like movements, but not ocular flutter, and the second with genuine ocular flutter. Discussion of difference between ocular flutter and nystagmus, and how to elicit ocular flutter.
    • Ocular Flutter
    • Nutritional amblyopia

    • Nutritional amblyopia.pdf
    • Example of patient with amblyopia with nutritional causes.
    • nutritional optic atrophy, Wernicke's encephalopathy
    • Notching of the Neuro-retinal Rim

    • glaucoma notching
    • The neuro-retinal rim becomes thinner; in particular the rim superotemporally and inferortemporally may develop a notch which is usually superior or inferior and rarely nasal or temporal. These notches are believed to be due to focal ischemic...
    • Glaucoma
    • Normal optic disc

    • Normal optic disc.pdf
    • Overview of the structure and function of the normal optic disc.
    • Normal optic disc anatomy
    • Normal Eye Movements

    • Normal_eye_movements.wmv
    • This is an examination of a person with normal eye movements. Notice the patient has normal excursions. He has normal pursuit and saccades (horizontally and vertically).
    • Normal Eye Movements; Testing Extraocular Muscles
    • Monocular Pendular Nystagmus

    • 2-9
    • Example of a patient with monocular pendular nystagmus, with discussion of situations in which this condition is seen: acquired disorder of the visual-sensory pathway, and acquired disorder of the brain stem (e.g. multiple sclerosis).
    • Monocular Pendular Nystagmus; Sensory Nystagmus; Pendular Nystagmus; Acquired Pendular Nystagmus
    • MELAS and RP

    • MELAS and RP.pdf
    • Mitochondrial Encephalopathy with Lactic Acidosis; MELAS Syndrome
    • Measuring Visual Acuity

    • visual_acuity
    • Demonstration on self of visual acuity exam, using a standard card.
    • Visual Acuity; Examination, Ocular
    • Marcus Jaw Winking

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-31
    • Example of patient with Marcus Jaw Winking. Patient is led through instructions for movement of jaw (open, close, back and forth), with eyelid seen to be affected. Patient is then led through instructions for direction of gaze and pursuit.
    • Marcus Jaw Winking
    • Macula

    • Macula.pdf
    • Overview of the structure and viewing of the macula.
    • Macula; retina;
    • Location of pupillomotor fibers

    • Figure-03
    • Location of pupillomotor fibers are depicted as dark regions on cross-sections of the right (R) and left (L) oculomotor nerve at various locations along its course, including its emergence from the brain stem in the interpeduncular fossa (1), the...
    • autonomic anatomy; pupillomotor fibers
    • Light-near dissociation

    • Figure-13
    • Light-near dissociation in a 51-year-old woman with multiple sclerosis who experienced double vision for 1 week. Her pupils are 5 mm in diameter in room light (top), react poorly in response to direct light reaction (middle), but constrict promptly...
    • Nystagmus, Pathologic/etiology; Nystagmus, Pathologic/physiopathology; Reflex, Pupillary
    • Light-Near Dissociation

    • 1-3_5
    • Example of patient with Argyll Robertson pupil with neurosyphilis. Shows a lack of pupillary response to light and some pupillary response to nearness of finger.
    • Light-Near Dissociation; Argyll-Robertson Pupil;
    • Levator Disinsertion

    • 1-26
    • Example of patient with levator disinsertion, a lid disorder. Patient is pregnant and wears poorly fitting contacts. Discussion of characteristics, such as lid ptosis (shown in the left eye of patient), but with full levator function.
    • Levator Disinsertion; Levator dehiscence
    • Left-sided internal carotid artery dissection

    • Figure-24
    • Left-sided internal carotid artery dissection identified on T-1 weighted magnetic resonance image from a 52-year-old man who suddenly developed left-sided neck and orbital pain along with a droopy left upper eyelid while dragging a deer out of the...
    • Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnosis; Carotid Artery Diseases/radiography; Carotid Artery, Internal; Cerebral Arterial Diseases/diagnosis; Cerebral Arterial Diseases/radiography; Dissection; Middle Aged; Male; Adult; Cervical Artery Dissection;...
    • Left-sided Horner's syndrome with an acquired preganglionic localization

    • Figure-20
    • Left-sided Horner's syndrome in a 12-year-old girl with an acquired preganglionic localization based on clinical and pharmacologic testing. The cause remained undetermined after extensive radiologic investigations. Left-sided ptosis and miosis are...
    • Horner Syndrome/etiology; Female; Child; Pupil/drug effects; Horner Syndrome; Effects of Drugs on the Pupils
    • Left-sided dilation lag in a man with Horner's syndrome

    • Figure-21
    • Left-sided dilation lag in a 29-year-old man with Horner's syndrome caused by a posterior mediastinal ganglioneuroma. Note that the degree of anisocoria is greater after 5 seconds in darkness (top) compared with findings after 15 seconds in...
    • Horner Syndrome/diagnosis; Horner Syndrome/physiopathology; Reflex, Pupillary; Dilation Lag; Horner's Syndrome
    • Latent Nystagmus

    • 2-2
    • Example of a patient with latent nystagmus. Demonstrates a lack of oscillations in forward gaze, followed by the occlusion of each eye, showing how this generates a jerking oscillation in the non-occluded eye away from the occluded eye.
    • Latent Nystagmus; Fusional Maldevelopment Nystagmus Syndrome
    • Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (2 examples)

    • 1-8
    • Two examples of patients with internuclear ophthalmoplegia. First patient has a right internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Patient had subacute bacterial endocarditis with a bacterial abscess in the brain stem. Ductions and gaze to the right look good,...
    • Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia; Abducting Nystagmus
    • How to Use the Direct Ophthalmoscope in an Exam

    • ophthalmoscope
    • Demonstration of using the direct ophthalmoscope to examine the optic disc. Covers hand placement , which eye to use, and distance from patient.
    • Direct Ophthalmoscope; Examination, Ocular;


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