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Browsing items in: EHSL - Moran Eye Center Neuro-Ophthalmology Collection

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    • 3 Step Test

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-20
    • Demonstration of patient examination.
    • 3 Step Test, Fourth Nerve Palsy; Ocular Motility; Fourth (Trochlear)
    • Abducting (Dissociated) Nystagmus

    • 2-7
    • Example of a patient with abducting (dissociated) nystagmus. Patient has a subtle internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Right eye has right-beating jerk nystagmus, with smaller oscillations in the left eye.
    • Abducting Nystagmus; Dissociated nystagmus
    • Aberrant Regeneration of the Seventh Nerve

    • 1-19
    • Examples of patients with aberrant regeneration of the seventh nerve. First example is a patient with contractions around the mouth and dimpling, demonstrated with slow and rapid eye blinking. Second example shows contraction around nose with eye...
    • Aberrant Regeneration of the Seventh Nerve; Aberrant Regeneration
    • Pathophysiology of signs associated with a tonic pupil

    • Figure-16
    • Pathophysiology of signs associated with a tonic pupil. Normally, all parasympathetic fibers of the third cranial nerve synapse in the ciliary ganglion (top). Most postganglionic fibers innervate the ciliary muscle (dashed lines). After injury to...
    • Adie's tonic pupil; Pupil Disorders; Iris/physiopathology; pupil
    • Pupil signs in a 32-year-old woman with right-sided Adie's pupil

    • Figure-17
    • Pupil signs in a 32-year-old woman with right-sided Adie's pupil. The right pupil is larger than the left pupil (top), reacts poorly to direct light stimulation (second panel), and better in response to near stimulation (third panel). The right...
    • Adie's tonic pupil; Pupil/innervation; Pupil/drug effects; Pupil/physiology
    • Tadpole-shaped pupil

    • Figure-28
    • Tadpole-shaped pupil in a 20-year-old women with frequent episodes of blurred vision and achiness of the right eye lasting several minutes. The patient took a photograph of her eyes during an attack to document the peaked, segmental dilation of her...
    • Adult; Female; Humans; Iris Diseases/complications; Iris Diseases/diagnosis; Iris Diseases/physiopathology; Pupil; Spasm/complications; Spasm/diagnosis; Spasm/physiopathology; Tadpole pupil
    • Anatomy of the oculosympathetic pathway

    • Figure-04
    • Anatomy of the oculosympathetic pathway. (Maloney WF, Younge BR, Moyer NJ: Evaluation of the causes and accuracy of pharmacologic localization in Horner's syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 1980;90:394–402, Ophthalmic Publishing Company with permission.)
    • Anatomy of the oculosympathetic pathway; Horner's syndrome
    • Flow chart for sorting out anisocoria - direct light reaction of the pupil

    • Figure-25
    • Flow chart for sorting out anisocoria based initially on the integrity of the direct light reaction of the pupil.
    • Anisocoria; Adie Syndrome/diagnosis; Cocaine/diagnostic use; Constriction; Dark Adaptation; Diagnosis, Differential; Dilatation; Eye Diseases/diagnosis; Eye Diseases/physiopathology; Horner Syndrome/diagnosis; Humans; Iris/innervation; Methacholine...
    • Flow chart for sorting out anisocoria - bright light and darkness

    • Figure-26
    • Flow chart for sorting out anisocoria based initially on how it is influenced by bright light and darkness.
    • Anisocoria; Adie Syndrome/diagnosis; Cocaine/diagnostic use; Constriction; Dark Adaptation; Diagnosis, Differential; Dilatation; Eye Diseases/diagnosis; Eye Diseases/physiopathology; Horner Syndrome/diagnosis; Humans; Iris/innervation; Methacholine...
    • Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    • Digre_AION
    • PPT describing Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (AION). Covers clinical signs, such as monocular vision loss, swollen nerve, and visual field defects, as well as risk factors.
    • Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
    • Argyll Robertson pupils

    • Figure-14
    • Argyll Robertson pupils in an elderly man treated for tabes dorsalis in 1952. His pupils are small and slightly irregular, constrict poorly in response to light stimulation (top), dilate poorly in darkness (middle), but constrict promptly in...
    • Argyll-Robertson pupil; Pupil Disorders/diagnosis; Pupil Disorders/etiology; Pupil Disorders/history; Pupil Disorders/pathology
    • Structures of the iris

    • Figure-01
    • Structures of the iris. The a indicates the anterior border layer that terminates at the pigmentary ruff of the pupillary border (b). The c indicates the iris sphincter muscle, which is oriented circumferentially within the stroma and located deep...
    • autonomic anatomy; iris
    • Location of pupillomotor fibers

    • Figure-03
    • Location of pupillomotor fibers are depicted as dark regions on cross-sections of the right (R) and left (L) oculomotor nerve at various locations along its course, including its emergence from the brain stem in the interpeduncular fossa (1), the...
    • autonomic anatomy; pupillomotor fibers
    • Bilateral Facial Myokymia

    • 1-21
    • Example of a patient with a brain stem glioma. Shows bilateral facial myokymia.
    • Bilateral Facial Myokymia; Facial Myokymia
    • Bilateral Ptosis

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-31
    •  
    • Bilateral Ptosis, Nuclear Third
    • Binocular Pendular Nystagmus

    • 2-10
    • Example of a patient with binocular pendular nystagmus. Patient has somewhat dissociated nystagmus, with nystagmus seen more prominently in the left eye. Patient shows an occasional jerk nystagmus to the right in the right eye. Left eye...
    • Binocular Pendular Nystagmus; Pendular Nystagmus; Acquired Pendular Nystagmus
    • Blepharospasm

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-5
    • Example of patient with blepharospasm. Patient is led through instructions for direction of gaze and opening and closing of eyes. Patient is led through same exercises again after receiving indomethacin treatment.
    • Blepharospasm
    • Unilateral Blepharospasm

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-16
    • Example of patient with unilateral blepharospasm.
    • Blepharospasm
    • Brun's Nystagmus

    • 2-11
    • Observation of patient with Brun’s Nystagmus. Shows patient gazing to the right and the nystagmus beating in the direction of the gaze.
    • Brun's Nystagmus; Cyclical
    • Left-sided internal carotid artery dissection

    • Figure-24
    • Left-sided internal carotid artery dissection identified on T-1 weighted magnetic resonance image from a 52-year-old man who suddenly developed left-sided neck and orbital pain along with a droopy left upper eyelid while dragging a deer out of the...
    • Carotid Artery Diseases/diagnosis; Carotid Artery Diseases/radiography; Carotid Artery, Internal; Cerebral Arterial Diseases/diagnosis; Cerebral Arterial Diseases/radiography; Dissection; Middle Aged; Male; Adult; Cervical Artery Dissection;...
    • Central Retinal Artery Occlusion

    • occlusion
    •  
    • Central Retinal Artery Occlusion; Vasospastic Amaurosis Fugax; Central Retinal Artery Occlusions; Stroke to Eye; Carotid Artery Distribution Stroke;
    • Cogan's Lid Twitch

    • 1-25
    • Example of a patient with Cogan’s lid twitch, with discussion of how to detect it in an exam.
    • Cogan's Lid Twitch; Lid Twitch
    • Pupillogram demonstrating paradoxical pupillary constriction to darkness

    • Figure-27
    • Pupillogram demonstrating paradoxical pupillary constriction to darkness in four patients with congenital achromatopsia. Note that the pupils initially constrict when the light is extinguished. (Price MJ, Thompson HS, Judisch GF et al: Pupillary...
    • Color Vision Defects/congenital; Color Vision Defects/physiopathology; Dark Adaptation; Flynn Phenomenon; Humans; Infrared Rays/diagnostic use; Night Blindness/congenital; Night Blindness/physiopathology; Optic Nerve Diseases/physiopathology;...
    • Cone Dystrophy

    • Cone Dystrophy.pdf
    • PPT covering Cone Dystrophy - An inherited degeneration that presents between 10 - 30 years of age. Symptoms are decreased visual acuity, poor color vision, and sometimes light sensitivity.
    • Cone Dystrophy; central cone dystrophy
    • Congenital Nystagmus

    • 2-1
    • Example of patients with congenital nystagmus. First patient’s nystagmus are mostly jerk and not pendular. Second patient’s nystagmus are mostly pendular. Both patients show a uniform horizontal oscillation. Second patient also shows...
    • Congenital Nystagmus
    • Congenital Nystagmus

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-30
    • Patient with congenital nystagmus (no audio)
    • Congenital Nystagmus
    • Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia

    • 1-17
    • Two examples of congenital ocular motor apraxia. Patients have trouble initiating saccades, and compensate with head movement. Discussion of how to distinguish this condition from simply not seeing well.
    • Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia
    • Bilateral iris colobomas (B)

    • Figure-19B
    • Bilateral iris colobomas. B. Bilateral colobomatous defects of the inferonasal retina (black arrows) are also present, as shown in the right eye.
    • Congenital pupillary abnormalities; Pupil; Pupil Disorders/etiology; Pupil Disorders/pathology
    • Bilateral iris colobomas

    • coloboma.jpg
    • Coloboma literally means a "gap"-and can be used to describe any fissure, hole, or gap in the eye. The term most often is used to refer to a congenital gap in the disc, retina, the choroid, and the iris. Colobomas occur because the embryonic...
    • Congenital pupillary abnormalities; Pupil; Pupil Disorders/etiology; Pupil Disorders/pathology; Correctopia
    • Convergence Retraction Nystagmus (Parinaud's Syndrome)

    • 2-21
    • Examples of patients with convergence retraction nystagmus. Shows saccadic oscillations in patients looking upwards and following downwards moving targets. Also shows a side-view of the retracting movements of the globes.
    • Convergence Retraction Nystagmus; Parinaud's Syndrome; Dorsal Midbrain Syndrome; Lid retraction
    • CPEO

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-10
    • Patient with Chronic Progressive External Ophthalmoplegia (CPEO)
    • CPEO; Myopathic; Sporadic CPEO
    • 4-35 - Cupped Optic Nerve

    • 4-35
    • Atrophic Glaucoma Atrophic glaucomatous discs show thinning of the neuro-retinal rim, "saucerization" (which is shallow cupping), evidence of peripapillary atrophy, and pallor of the very narrow neuroretinal rim. Notice that there is severe atrophy...
    • Cupped Optic Nerve
    • Cyclic Oculomotor Palsy

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-11
    • Example of patient with cyclic oculomotor palsy.
    • Cyclic Oculomotor Palsy; Cyclical; Cyclic Oculomotor Paresis
    • Dilation Lag

    • 1-2
    • Two examples of dilation lag (Horner’s syndrome). In the first example, the right pupil dilates much faster than the left pupil when the light is turned out. In the second example, the left pupil dilates much faster than the right pupil when the...
    • Dilation Lag; Horner Syndrome; Horner's Syndrome
    • Tour of the Direct Ophthalmoscope

    • How2use
    • This clip describes the parts and operation of the ophthalmoscope as an ocular examination tool. Includes adjustment of aperture size and adjustment of lenses.
    • Direct Ophthalmoscope; Examination, Ocular;
    • How to Use the Direct Ophthalmoscope in an Exam

    • ophthalmoscope
    • Demonstration of using the direct ophthalmoscope to examine the optic disc. Covers hand placement , which eye to use, and distance from patient.
    • Direct Ophthalmoscope; Examination, Ocular;
    • 2-4a - Disc Anatomy

    • 2-4a
    • The optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal...
    • Disc Anatomy
    • 2-7a - Disc Anatomy

    • 2-7a
    • The optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal...
    • Disc Anatomy
    • Dissociated Nystagmus

    • 2-14
    • Example of a patient with dissociated nystagmus. Demonstrates difference in movements between each eye.
    • Dissociated Nystagmus
    • 4-52b - Dominant Optic Neuropathy

    • 4-52b
    • A son presented with bilateral optic atrophy of unknown etiology after he failed a school visual exam. When looking for dominant optic atrophy, look at the parents. Mother was examined to find similar kind of atrophy. 4-52a mother, 4-52b son.
    • Dominant Optic Neuropathy
    • 4-60a - Dominant Optic Neuropathy

    • 4-60a
    • A son presented with bilateral optic atrophy of unknown etiology after he failed a school visual exam. When looking for dominant optic atrophy, look at the parents. Mother was examined to find similar kind of atrophy. 4-60a mother, 4-60b son.
    • Dominant Optic Neuropathy
    • Downbeat Nystagmus

    • 2-6
    • Example of patients with downbeating jerk nystagmus. Demonstrates how oscillations grow more prominent when the patient gazes down or laterally. Discusses some causes, including Arnold-Chiari malformation, infarction, and demyelination.
    • Downbeat Nystagmus
    • Downbeat Nystagmus

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-1
    • Example of patient with downbeat nystagmus. Patient is led through instructions of where to gaze. (no audio)
    • Downbeat Nystagmus
    • Downbeat Nystagmus

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-9
    • Example of patient with downbeat nystagmus. Patient is led through instructions of where to gaze.
    • Downbeat Nystagmus
    • Flutter in Downgaze

    • NOVEL_Moran_3a-8
    • Examination of patient with flutter in downgaze (no audio)
    • Downgaze, Eye Flutter
    • Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type 1; Lid retraction

    • 1-10
    • Example of patients with Duane’s Retraction Syndrome, Type 1. Description of components of Duane’s Syndrome: limitation of abduction, variable limitation of adduction, and palpebral fissure narrowing and globe retraction with attempted...
    • Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type 1; Duane's Syndrome
    • Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type 3

    • 1-12
    • Example of a patient with Type 3 Duane’s Retraction Syndrome, as well as bilateral Duane’s Syndrome. Shows limitation of abduction in both eyes and adduction in the left eye. Also shows side-view of globe retraction in abduction.
    • Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type 3; Lid retraction
    • Duane's Syndrome

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-23
    • Example of patient with Duane’s Syndrome. Patient is led through instructions for pursuit.
    • Duane's Syndrome
    • Duane's Syndrome Type I

    • Bell_J_Duanes_type_1
    • Clip of patient with Duane's Syndrome Type I. Presented at the Neurology Grand Rounds in Fall 2011 at the University of Utah. Presentation can be found in this collection at: Why Don't You See Double?...
    • Duane's Syndrome; Duane's Type I
    • Why Don't You See Double?

    • Bell_J_Neuro_GR_Duanes_PPT
    • This presentation was given at the Neurology Grand Rounds in Fall 2011 at the University of Utah. A number of Duane Syndrome cases are covered. Related video can be found in this collection at: Duane's Syndrome Type...
    • Duane's Syndrome; Duane's Type I; Duane's Type III;
    • Duane's Syndrome Type III

    • Bell_J_Duanes_type_III
    • Clip of patient with Duane's Syndrome Type III. Presented at the Neurology Grand Rounds in Fall 2011 at the University of Utah. Presentation can be found in this collection at: Why Don't You See Double?...
    • Duane's Syndrome; Duane's Type III;
    • Dysthyroid optic neuropathy: A preventable cause of blindness

    • weinberg_1.pdf
    • Dysthyroid Optic Neuropathy (DON) is a treatable cause of visual loss in ~5% of pts w/ ted. Monitor closely those pts with risk factors (proptosis, tight orbit, restricted motility, strabismus, smoker, diabetic). Oral prednisone is often...
    • Dysthyroid ophthalmopathy; Thyroid orbitopathy; Thyroid eye disease; Thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO); Graves' disease; Restrictive orbitopathy;
    • Physiologic (End-Gaze) Nystagmus

    • 2-16
    • Demonstration of physiological nystagmus, where oscillations do not represent pathology, but occur when the patient’s gaze is drawn too far laterally.
    • End-Gaze nystagmus; Physiologic nystagmus
    • Amsler Grid Testing

    • Amsler_Grid
    • Demonstration of Amsler Grid examination.
    • Examination, Ocular; Amsler Grid
    • Basic Eye Alignment Exam

    • Basic_Eye_Alignment
    • Demonstration of basic eye alignment examination. Includes: a. Tools b. Cover-Uncover and SPCT c. Alternate Cover and APCT d. Maddox Rod Testing
    • Examination, Ocular; Basic Eye Alignment
    • Color Vision Testing

    • Color_Vision
    • Demonstration of color vision examination.
    • Examination, Ocular; Color Vision
    • Exophthalmometry

    • Exophthalmometry
    • Demonstration of exophthalmometry examination.
    • Examination, Ocular; Exophthalmometry
    • Eyelid Measurements

    • Eyelid_Measurements
    • Demonstration of eyelid measurements examination.
    • Examination, Ocular; Eyelid Measurements
    • Fusional Vergence Amplitudes

    • Fusional_Vergence
    • Demonstration of fusional vergence amplitudes examination. Incluudes: a. Convergence Amplitudes b. Divergence Amplitudes c. Vertical Ampitudes
    • Examination, Ocular; Fusional Vergence Amplitudes
    • Pupil Exam

    • Pupil_Exam
    • Demonstration of pupil examination.
    • Examination, Ocular; Pupil Exam
    • Stereoacuity Testing

    • Stereoacuity
    • Demonstration of examination for stereoacuity.
    • Examination, Ocular; Stereoacuity
    • Fourth Nerve Palsy

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-22
    • Demonstration of examination of patient who experienced blurry vision and pain in the left eye. Demonstrates checking of eye movements, focusing on object while each eye is covered and uncovered, turning head both ways and repeating. Shows...
    • Fourth Nerve Palsy, 3 Step Test
    • Tour of the Fundus

    • TheTour
    • This clip demonstrates the funduscopic examination technique.
    • Fundus; Examination, Ocular; Normal optic disc; AVP Macula; AVP Optic Nerve; Ophthalmoscopes
    • Gaze Palsy with Facial Weakness from Pontine AVM

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-6
    • Example of a patient with torsional nystagmus in both eyes and pendular nystagmus in the left eye. Patient is led through instructions for direction of gaze.
    • Gaze Palsy, Facial Weakness, Pontine AVM
    • Notching of the Neuro-retinal Rim

    • glaucoma notching
    • The neuro-retinal rim becomes thinner; in particular the rim superotemporally and inferortemporally may develop a notch which is usually superior or inferior and rarely nasal or temporal. These notches are believed to be due to focal ischemic...
    • Glaucoma
    • Glaucoma: the basics

    • Glaucoma the basics.pdf
    • Glaucoma is the most common optic neuropathy. Progressive cupping of the optic disc due to increased intraocular pressure together with visual field abnormalities and local disc susceptibility factors characterize this neuropathy. This PowerPoint...
    • Glaucoma; Optic Neuropathy
    • 3-59c - Glioma

    • 3-59c
    • This 45-year-old man presented with vision loss in his right eye; his examination showed severe disc swelling in this eye and vision loss on visual field testing (3-59a). MRI with fat saturation and enhancement and MRI with T2 signals also confirm...
    • Glioma
    • 3-59a - Glioma

    • 3-59a
    • This 45-year-old man presented with vision loss in his right eye; his examination showed severe disc swelling in this eye and vision loss on visual field testing (3-59a). MRI with fat saturation and enhancement and MRI with T2 signals also confirm...
    • Glioma
    • The Wall-Eyed Potato Farmer

    • walsh_2000_c30
    • Young man presenting with apparent episodic neurologic evants that initially was thought to be multiple sclerosis, but as time went on, he had progressive changes in his neurologic exam and in his imaging findings. Brain biopsy revealed Gliomatosis...
    • Gliomatosis Cerebri; Intracranial Tumors; Bilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia
    • Basic Headache

    • Basic Headache.pdf
    •  
    • Headache; Migraine;
    • Hemifacial Spasm

    • 1-18
    • Example of patients with hemifacial spasm. First patient has a sequela of Bell’s palsy, and is seen to have mainly clonic movements around the eye, with occasional tonic movements around the mouth. Second patient has a cerebellopontine angle...
    • Hemifacial Spasm
    • Left-sided dilation lag in a man with Horner's syndrome

    • Figure-21
    • Left-sided dilation lag in a 29-year-old man with Horner's syndrome caused by a posterior mediastinal ganglioneuroma. Note that the degree of anisocoria is greater after 5 seconds in darkness (top) compared with findings after 15 seconds in...
    • Horner Syndrome/diagnosis; Horner Syndrome/physiopathology; Reflex, Pupillary; Dilation Lag; Horner's Syndrome
    • Left-sided Horner's syndrome with an acquired preganglionic localization

    • Figure-20
    • Left-sided Horner's syndrome in a 12-year-old girl with an acquired preganglionic localization based on clinical and pharmacologic testing. The cause remained undetermined after extensive radiologic investigations. Left-sided ptosis and miosis are...
    • Horner Syndrome/etiology; Female; Child; Pupil/drug effects; Horner Syndrome; Effects of Drugs on the Pupils
    • Right-sided pseudo-Horner's syndrome

    • Figure-22
    • Right-sided pseudo-Horner's syndrome in an 8-month-old infant referred because her mother had noted a larger pupil on the left for a few months and her pediatrician thought the right upper lid was droopy. Both pupils reacted normally to light and...
    • Infant; Horner Syndrome/diagnosis; Horner Syndrome/etiology; Horner's Syndrome
    • Bilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-30
    • Example of patient with bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Patient is led through instructions for direction and distance of gaze.
    • Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia
    • Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (2 examples)

    • 1-8
    • Two examples of patients with internuclear ophthalmoplegia. First patient has a right internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Patient had subacute bacterial endocarditis with a bacterial abscess in the brain stem. Ductions and gaze to the right look good,...
    • Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia; Abducting Nystagmus
    • Wall-Eyed Bilateral Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (WEBINO)

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-17
    • Example of patient with horizontal binocular diplopia. Demonstration of exam, which shows alternating exotropia in cover test. As patient follows object, right eye does not pass the midline as the object moves to the left, while left eye go...
    • Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia, WEBINO
    • Latent Nystagmus

    • 2-2
    • Example of a patient with latent nystagmus. Demonstrates a lack of oscillations in forward gaze, followed by the occlusion of each eye, showing how this generates a jerking oscillation in the non-occluded eye away from the occluded eye.
    • Latent Nystagmus; Fusional Maldevelopment Nystagmus Syndrome
    • Levator Disinsertion

    • 1-26
    • Example of patient with levator disinsertion, a lid disorder. Patient is pregnant and wears poorly fitting contacts. Discussion of characteristics, such as lid ptosis (shown in the left eye of patient), but with full levator function.
    • Levator Disinsertion; Levator dehiscence
    • Light-Near Dissociation

    • 1-3_5
    • Example of patient with Argyll Robertson pupil with neurosyphilis. Shows a lack of pupillary response to light and some pupillary response to nearness of finger.
    • Light-Near Dissociation; Argyll-Robertson Pupil;
    • Macula

    • Macula.pdf
    • Overview of the structure and viewing of the macula.
    • Macula; retina;
    • Marcus Jaw Winking

    • NOVEL_Moran_2-31
    • Example of patient with Marcus Jaw Winking. Patient is led through instructions for movement of jaw (open, close, back and forth), with eyelid seen to be affected. Patient is then led through instructions for direction of gaze and pursuit.
    • Marcus Jaw Winking
    • 3-60b - Meningioma

    • 3-60b
    • This 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d:...
    • Meningioma
    • 3-60a - Meningioma

    • 3-60a
    • This 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d:...
    • Meningioma

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