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Browsing items in: EHSL - Moran Eye Center Neuro-Ophthalmology Collection

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    • How to Measure the RAPD

    • 1-1
    • This clip demonstrates the examination technique for measuring the Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect (RAPD). Demonstration of balancing an afferent papillary defect using filters in a patient with a resolving optic neuritis and an afferent...
    • Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect (RAPD); Examination, Pupillary;
    • Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type 1; Lid retraction

    • 1-10
    • Example of patients with Duane’s Retraction Syndrome, Type 1. Description of components of Duane’s Syndrome: limitation of abduction, variable limitation of adduction, and palpebral fissure narrowing and globe retraction with attempted...
    • Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type 1; Duane's Syndrome
    • Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type 3

    • 1-12
    • Example of a patient with Type 3 Duane’s Retraction Syndrome, as well as bilateral Duane’s Syndrome. Shows limitation of abduction in both eyes and adduction in the left eye. Also shows side-view of globe retraction in abduction.
    • Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type 3; Lid retraction
    • Spasm of the Near Reflex

    • 1-13
    • Example of patient with spasm of the near reflex and voluntary nystagmus. Discussion of similar-looking conditions (e.g. six nerve palsy, limitation of abduction, lateral rectus muscle problems) and how to tell them apart from spasm of the near...
    • Spasm of the Near Reflex; Spasm of the near triad; Voluntary Nystagmus
    • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    • 1-14
    • Example of patient with progressive supranuclear palsy. Discussion of difference between saccadic movement in supranuclear palsy and nystagmus. Shows saccadic intrusions in forward gaze, pursuit, saccades, and doll’s head maneuver.
    • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy
    • Opsoclonus

    • 1-15
    • Example of patients with opsoclonus, a saccadic abnormality. Discussion of characteristics of opsoclonus, such as involuntary, rapid, brief, random, conjugate saccades. Discussion of possible causes, including brain stem encephalitis (as in first...
    • Opsoclonus
    • Opsoclonus

    • 1-15b
    • Example of patients with opsoclonus, a saccadic abnormality.
    • Opsoclonus
    • Parinaud's Syndrome

    • 1-16
    • Two examples of patients with Parinaud’s syndrome, a dorsal midbrain syndrome. Discussion of hallmarks of this syndrome, including convergence retraction nystagmus, vertical gaze palsies, light-near dissociation, and Collier’s Sign. Discussion...
    • Parinaud's Syndrome; Dorsal Midbrain Syndrome;
    • Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia

    • 1-17
    • Two examples of congenital ocular motor apraxia. Patients have trouble initiating saccades, and compensate with head movement. Discussion of how to distinguish this condition from simply not seeing well.
    • Congenital Ocular Motor Apraxia
    • Hemifacial Spasm

    • 1-18
    • Example of patients with hemifacial spasm. First patient has a sequela of Bell’s palsy, and is seen to have mainly clonic movements around the eye, with occasional tonic movements around the mouth. Second patient has a cerebellopontine angle...
    • Hemifacial Spasm
    • Aberrant Regeneration of the Seventh Nerve

    • 1-19
    • Examples of patients with aberrant regeneration of the seventh nerve. First example is a patient with contractions around the mouth and dimpling, demonstrated with slow and rapid eye blinking. Second example shows contraction around nose with eye...
    • Aberrant Regeneration of the Seventh Nerve; Aberrant Regeneration
    • Dilation Lag

    • 1-2
    • Two examples of dilation lag (Horner’s syndrome). In the first example, the right pupil dilates much faster than the left pupil when the light is turned out. In the second example, the left pupil dilates much faster than the right pupil when the...
    • Dilation Lag; Horner Syndrome; Horner's Syndrome
    • Facial Myokymia Unilateral

    • 1-20
    • Example of patient with facial myokymia, a disorder of the seventh nerve, probably due to brain stem involvement. Patient has multiple sclerosis. Discussion of characteristics, such as continuous, undulating, contractions in the distribution of the...
    • Superior Oblique Myokymia; Facial Myokymia Unilateral; Facial Myokymia
    • Bilateral Facial Myokymia

    • 1-21
    • Example of a patient with a brain stem glioma. Shows bilateral facial myokymia.
    • Bilateral Facial Myokymia; Facial Myokymia
    • Pulsating Exophthalmos

    • 1-22
    • Example of a patient with neurofibromatosis with an absent sphenoid wing. Shows left eye pulsating back and forth with the pulse from front and side views.
    • Pulsating Exophthalmus
    • Ocular Myasthenia

    • 1-23
    • Example of patient with myasthenia gravis. Demonstration of tensilon test. Patient shown to have bilateral ptosis, bilateral duction deficits, and left hypertropia. Discussion of techniques to observe subtle changes, such as bringing in a neutral...
    • Ocular Myasthenia; Myasthenia gravis; Ptosis -- Myasthenic; Tensilon Test
    • Before Tensilon

    • 1-24
    • Example of patient with myasthenia gravis. Demonstration of baseline examination, followed by administration of 2mg of tensilon, which is a test dose. Procedure for administration of tensilon test is described, including variations. Patient is then...
    • Myasthenia gravis; Tensilon Test;
    • Cogan's Lid Twitch

    • 1-25
    • Example of a patient with Cogan’s lid twitch, with discussion of how to detect it in an exam.
    • Cogan's Lid Twitch; Lid Twitch
    • Levator Disinsertion

    • 1-26
    • Example of patient with levator disinsertion, a lid disorder. Patient is pregnant and wears poorly fitting contacts. Discussion of characteristics, such as lid ptosis (shown in the left eye of patient), but with full levator function.
    • Levator Disinsertion; Levator dehiscence
    • Transillumination - Ciliary Body Neurofibromas1

    • 1-28
    • Example of transillumination on a patient with neurofibromatosis, but without Lisch nodules. Shows suspected neurofibromas in the ciliary body.
    • Transillumination; Examination, Ocular; Ciliary Body Neurofibromas1; Neurofibromatosis1
    • Transillumination - Lisch nodules

    • 1-29
    • Demonstration of transillumination of the Lisch nodules on a patient with neurofibromatosis. Shows how Lisch nodules that were not very visible in slit-lamp examination are better seen with transillumination, which may therefore be useful in...
    • Transillumination; Examination, Ocular; Lisch nodules; Neurofibromatosis1
    • Sector Palsies and Light-Near Dissociation

    • 1-3
    • Example of patient with bilateral Adie’s pupils. Exam is performed with a slit-lamp. Shows iris stroma and focal segments of iris sphincter that retain their contractilty. Suggests post-ganglionic parasympathetic denervation.
    • Sector Palsies; Light-Near Dissociation; Bilateral Adie's Pupil; Adie's Tonic Pupil;
    • Light-Near Dissociation

    • 1-3_5
    • Example of patient with Argyll Robertson pupil with neurosyphilis. Shows a lack of pupillary response to light and some pupillary response to nearness of finger.
    • Light-Near Dissociation; Argyll-Robertson Pupil;
    • Paradoxical Constriction of Pupils to Darkness (Flynn Phenomenon)

    • 1-4
    • Example of patients both with and without paradoxical constriction of pupils. Observed in many congenital retinal disorders, such as achromatopsia, congenital stationary night-blindness, and Leber’s congenital amaurosis. Sometimes seen in optic...
    • Pupil; Flynn Phenomenon
    • Third Nerve Palsy, Pupil Involving

    • 1-5
    • Example of patient with third nerve palsy. Left eye shows pupilary involvement. Left eye doesn’t immediately duct, but abducts well, with impaired superduction. Secondary and primary deviations are demonstrated. Anisocoria is more prominent when...
    • Pupil; Third Nerve Palsy; Third nerve dysfunction
    • Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (2 examples)

    • 1-8
    • Two examples of patients with internuclear ophthalmoplegia. First patient has a right internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Patient had subacute bacterial endocarditis with a bacterial abscess in the brain stem. Ductions and gaze to the right look good,...
    • Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia; Abducting Nystagmus
    • Ocular Lateropulsion (Wallenberg's Syndrome)

    • 1-9
    • Example of patient with ocular lateropulsion. Patient also has central Horner syndrome and nystagmus in right gaze. When shifting gaze back to forward, eyes overshoot their mark. Eyes laterally deviate to the right upon opening.
    • Ocular Lateropulsion; Wallenberg's Syndrome; Lateropulsion; Lateral Medullary Syndrome; Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery; Wallenberg Syndrome
    • Congenital Nystagmus

    • 2-1
    • Example of patients with congenital nystagmus. First patient’s nystagmus are mostly jerk and not pendular. Second patient’s nystagmus are mostly pendular. Both patients show a uniform horizontal oscillation. Second patient also shows...
    • Congenital Nystagmus
    • Binocular Pendular Nystagmus

    • 2-10
    • Example of a patient with binocular pendular nystagmus. Patient has somewhat dissociated nystagmus, with nystagmus seen more prominently in the left eye. Patient shows an occasional jerk nystagmus to the right in the right eye. Left eye...
    • Binocular Pendular Nystagmus; Pendular Nystagmus; Acquired Pendular Nystagmus
    • Brun's Nystagmus

    • 2-11
    • Observation of patient with Brun’s Nystagmus. Shows patient gazing to the right and the nystagmus beating in the direction of the gaze.
    • Brun's Nystagmus; Cyclical
    • Periodic Alternating Nystagmus

    • 2-12
    • Example of a patient with periodic alternating nystagmus, showing an alternation between left-beats and right-beats as the patient maintains forward gaze. Nystagmus maintain horizontal direction regardless of position of gaze.
    • Periodic Alternating Nystagmus
    • Rotary Nystagmus

    • 2-13
    • Example of a patient with rotary nystagmus, showing occasional counterclockwise rotary movements of both eyes. Seen more in intrinsic disorders of the brainstem.
    • Rotary (Torsional) Nystagmus
    • Dissociated Nystagmus

    • 2-14
    • Example of a patient with dissociated nystagmus. Demonstrates difference in movements between each eye.
    • Dissociated Nystagmus
    • Vestibular Nystagmus

    • 2-15
    • Discussion of vestibular nystagmus. Seen with peripheral disorders and central disorders, and in two varieties: spontaneous and positional. Horizontal jerk with small amplitude.
    • Vestibular Nystagmus; Jerk Nystagmus; Peripheral Vestibular Nystagmus; Positional Nystagmus
    • Physiologic (End-Gaze) Nystagmus

    • 2-16
    • Demonstration of physiological nystagmus, where oscillations do not represent pathology, but occur when the patient’s gaze is drawn too far laterally.
    • End-Gaze nystagmus; Physiologic nystagmus
    • Ocular Flutter

    • 2-17
    • Two examples of patients, the first with rotary, flutter-like movements, but not ocular flutter, and the second with genuine ocular flutter. Discussion of difference between ocular flutter and nystagmus, and how to elicit ocular flutter.
    • Ocular Flutter
    • Superior Oblique Myokymia

    • 2-19
    • Example of patients with superior oblique myokymia, a saccadic intrusion. First patient is seen to have intermittent, intorting movements with superimposed slight vertical deviations in right eye. Discussion of disorder as benign, but frequently...
    • Superior Oblique Myokymia; Third Nerve Palsy
    • Latent Nystagmus

    • 2-2
    • Example of a patient with latent nystagmus. Demonstrates a lack of oscillations in forward gaze, followed by the occlusion of each eye, showing how this generates a jerking oscillation in the non-occluded eye away from the occluded eye.
    • Latent Nystagmus; Fusional Maldevelopment Nystagmus Syndrome
    • Square Wave Jerks

    • 2-20
    • Example of patient with square wave jerks. Discussion of difference between square wave jerks (saccadic oscillations) and horizontal nystagmus.
    • Square Wave Jerks
    • Convergence Retraction Nystagmus (Parinaud's Syndrome)

    • 2-21
    • Examples of patients with convergence retraction nystagmus. Shows saccadic oscillations in patients looking upwards and following downwards moving targets. Also shows a side-view of the retracting movements of the globes.
    • Convergence Retraction Nystagmus; Parinaud's Syndrome; Dorsal Midbrain Syndrome; Lid retraction
    • Voluntary Nystagmus

    • 2-22
    • Example of patient with voluntary nystagmus. Discussion of how a lack of uniform, patterned movement of the eyes along with associated lid movements suggests that activity is voluntary.
    • Voluntary Nystagmus; Voluntary Flutter
    • Spasmus Nutans

    • 2-3
    • Example of patient with spasmus nutans. Discussion of characteristics of this disorder, such as dissociated or monocular nystagmus, abnormal head position, and to-and-fro head oscillation. Sometimes an eccentric gaze is seen as well (as in...
    • Spasmus Nutans
    • 2-37a - Vascular Features

    • 2-37a
    • When looking at the disc, the central retinal artery and vein should be visible. The central retinal artery is usually slightly narrower than the vein. When the central retinal artery goes though the lamina cribrosa, the artery becomes smaller...
    • Vascular Features
    • 2-37b - Vascular Features

    • 2-37b
    • When looking at the disc, the central retinal artery and vein should be visible. The central retinal artery is usually slightly narrower than the vein. When the central retinal artery goes though the lamina cribrosa, the artery becomes smaller...
    • Vascular Features
    • See-Saw Nystagmus

    • 2-4
    • Example of a patient with see-saw nystagmus, showing how one eye elevates as the other depresses, with the elevating eye intorting as the depressing eye extorts. Shows vertical oscillations with pendular waveforms. Suggests a large structural...
    • See-Saw Nystagmus
    • 2-4a - Disc Anatomy

    • 2-4a
    • The optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal...
    • Disc Anatomy
    • Upbeat Nystagmus

    • 2-5
    • Example of a patient with upbeat nystagmus. Shows vertical jerk nystagmus with fast phases in the up direction. Localizes to brain stem, and occurs with strokes, demyelination, and tumors.
    • Upbeat Nystagmus; Blepharospasm
    • 2-53a - Venous Pulsations

    • 2-53a
    • On the disc, look for spontaneous venous pulsations. Spontaneous venous pulsations can be seen in the large trunks of veins at the level of the disc margin. They are normally present and seen in 37-90% of normals -- depending on the experience of...
    • Venous Pulsations
    • 2-53b - Venous Pulsations

    • 2-53b
    • On the disc, look for spontaneous venous pulsations. Spontaneous venous pulsations can be seen in the large trunks of veins at the level of the disc margin. They are normally present and seen in 37-90% of normals -- depending on the experience of...
    • Venous Pulsations
    • Downbeat Nystagmus

    • 2-6
    • Example of patients with downbeating jerk nystagmus. Demonstrates how oscillations grow more prominent when the patient gazes down or laterally. Discusses some causes, including Arnold-Chiari malformation, infarction, and demyelination.
    • Downbeat Nystagmus
    • Abducting (Dissociated) Nystagmus

    • 2-7
    • Example of a patient with abducting (dissociated) nystagmus. Patient has a subtle internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Right eye has right-beating jerk nystagmus, with smaller oscillations in the left eye.
    • Abducting Nystagmus; Dissociated nystagmus
    • 2-7a - Disc Anatomy

    • 2-7a
    • The optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal...
    • Disc Anatomy
    • Rebound Nystagmus

    • 2-8
    • Example of a patient with rebound nystagmus, where the oscillations alternate direction as the patient shifts gaze in different directions. Discussion of relationship to disease and disorders of the cerebellum, including degenerations of the...
    • Rebound Nystagmus; Gaze-Evoked Nystagmus
    • Monocular Pendular Nystagmus

    • 2-9
    • Example of a patient with monocular pendular nystagmus, with discussion of situations in which this condition is seen: acquired disorder of the visual-sensory pathway, and acquired disorder of the brain stem (e.g. multiple sclerosis).
    • Monocular Pendular Nystagmus; Sensory Nystagmus; Pendular Nystagmus; Acquired Pendular Nystagmus
    • 3-31b - Papilledema Stages

    • 3-31b
    • Grading Papilledema: Stage 0 GRADING PAPILLEDEMA GRADING PAPILLEDEMA We grade papilledema in order to tell us how severe it is. The most sensible grading scheme has been provided by Lars Frisén. STAGE 0: This woman had documented increased...
    • Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
    • 3-32b - Papilledema Stages

    • 3-32b
    • Grading Papilledema: Stage 1 Stage 1 = C shaped blurring of the nasal, superior and inferior borders. Usually the temporal margin is normal. Also notice the chorio-retinal folds (arrows) that eminate toward the macula (m)
    • Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
    • 3-33b - Papilledema Stages

    • 3-33b
    • Grading Papilledema: Stage 2 = Elevation of the disc margin 360 degrees. Since the blood vessels at the disc margin are not swollen or obscured, this disc could be mistaken for pseudo-papilledema.
    • Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
    • 3-34c Papilledema Stages

    • 3-34c
    • Grading Papilledema: Stage 3 Stage 3 = Elevation of the entire disc with partial obscuration of the retinal vessels at the disc margin. Here the vessels are partly obscured and make the development into stage 3 easier to call.
    • Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
    • 3-35a - Papilledema Stages

    • 3-35a
    • Grading Papilledema: Stage 4 Stage 4 = Complete obliteration of the cup and complete obscuration of at least some vessels on the surface of the disc. There may be small dilated capillaries on the disc that resemble telangiectasia. It is not the NFL...
    • Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
    • 3-36a - Papilledema Stages

    • 3-36a
    • Grading Papilledema: Stage 5 Stage 5 = Dome-shaped appearance with all vessels being obscured. (Sometimes called "champagne cork" swelling--because of its dome shape.)
    • Papilledema Stages; Raised Intracranial Pressure
    • 3-4 - Tilted Disc

    • 3-4
    • Tilted discs are normal variants caused by oblique insertion of the optic nerve to the globe. They can be and frequently are mistaken for papilledema. In this case the superior edge of the disc is tilted and appears elevated. This disc exhibits a...
    • Tilted Disc
    • 3-59a - Glioma

    • 3-59a
    • This 45-year-old man presented with vision loss in his right eye; his examination showed severe disc swelling in this eye and vision loss on visual field testing (3-59a). MRI with fat saturation and enhancement and MRI with T2 signals also confirm...
    • Glioma
    • 3-59c - Glioma

    • 3-59c
    • This 45-year-old man presented with vision loss in his right eye; his examination showed severe disc swelling in this eye and vision loss on visual field testing (3-59a). MRI with fat saturation and enhancement and MRI with T2 signals also confirm...
    • Glioma
    • 3-5b - Myelinated Nerve Fibers

    • 3-5b
    • Myelinated nerve fibers are frequently confused with papilledema. The feathery edge of the myelinated fibers that conceal the disc and vessel should provide the clue. These myelinated nerve fibers make the disc look blurred.
    • Myelinated Nerve Fibers
    • 3-60a - Meningioma

    • 3-60a
    • This 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d:...
    • Meningioma
    • 3-60b - Meningioma

    • 3-60b
    • This 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d:...
    • Meningioma
    • 3-60d - Meningioma

    • 3-60d
    • This 35 year old woman presented with slowly progressive loss of central acuity to 20/30. 3-60a: Her visual field shows progressive restriction over time. 3-60b: Her disc was chronically swollen, with refractile bodies on the disc surface. 3-60d:...
    • Meningioma
    • 3-64a - Shunt Vessels (CRVO)

    • 3-64a
    • This man with a chronic CRVO and retino-choroidal collaterals developed AION and his collaterals disappeared. CRVO with retinochoroidal collaterals is almost always associated with multiple peripheral dot and blot hemorrhages as well as nerve fiber...
    • Shunt Vessels (CRVO)
    • 3-65 - Shunt Vessels (Glaucoma)

    • 3-65
    • Chronic end-stage glaucoma produces high pressure that interferes with venous drainage from the disc and broad smooth venous collaterals drain the disc centrifugally to the disc margin where they drain.
    • Shunt Vessels (Glaucoma)
    • 3-66a - Shunt Vessels (post-papilledema)

    • 3-66a
    • The retino-choroidal collaterals seen with chronic papilledema begin with a "Hairnet" of telangiectasias that gradually winnow down to one or more large collateral tortuous draining channel. The presence of these vessels is evidence of long...
    • Shunt Vessels (post-papilledema)
    • 3-66d - Shunt Vessels (post-papilledema)

    • 3-66d
    • The retino-choroidal collaterals seen with chronic papilledema begin with a "Hairnet" of telangiectasias that gradually winnow down to one or more large collateral tortuous draining channel. The presence of these vessels is evidence of long...
    • Shunt Vessels (post-papilledema)
    • 4-35 - Cupped Optic Nerve

    • 4-35
    • Atrophic Glaucoma Atrophic glaucomatous discs show thinning of the neuro-retinal rim, "saucerization" (which is shallow cupping), evidence of peripapillary atrophy, and pallor of the very narrow neuroretinal rim. Notice that there is severe atrophy...
    • Cupped Optic Nerve
    • 4-52b - Dominant Optic Neuropathy

    • 4-52b
    • A son presented with bilateral optic atrophy of unknown etiology after he failed a school visual exam. When looking for dominant optic atrophy, look at the parents. Mother was examined to find similar kind of atrophy. 4-52a mother, 4-52b son.
    • Dominant Optic Neuropathy
    • 4-60a - Dominant Optic Neuropathy

    • 4-60a
    • A son presented with bilateral optic atrophy of unknown etiology after he failed a school visual exam. When looking for dominant optic atrophy, look at the parents. Mother was examined to find similar kind of atrophy. 4-60a mother, 4-60b son.
    • Dominant Optic Neuropathy
    • Amsler Grid Testing

    • Amsler_Grid
    • Demonstration of Amsler Grid examination.
    • Examination, Ocular; Amsler Grid
    • Basic Headache

    • Basic Headache.pdf
    •  
    • Headache; Migraine;
    • Basic Eye Alignment Exam

    • Basic_Eye_Alignment
    • Demonstration of basic eye alignment examination. Includes: a. Tools b. Cover-Uncover and SPCT c. Alternate Cover and APCT d. Maddox Rod Testing
    • Examination, Ocular; Basic Eye Alignment
    • Duane's Syndrome Type I

    • Bell_J_Duanes_type_1
    • Clip of patient with Duane's Syndrome Type I. Presented at the Neurology Grand Rounds in Fall 2011 at the University of Utah. Presentation can be found in this collection at: Why Don't You See Double?...
    • Duane's Syndrome; Duane's Type I
    • Duane's Syndrome Type III

    • Bell_J_Duanes_type_III
    • Clip of patient with Duane's Syndrome Type III. Presented at the Neurology Grand Rounds in Fall 2011 at the University of Utah. Presentation can be found in this collection at: Why Don't You See Double?...
    • Duane's Syndrome; Duane's Type III;
    • Why Don't You See Double?

    • Bell_J_Neuro_GR_Duanes_PPT
    • This presentation was given at the Neurology Grand Rounds in Fall 2011 at the University of Utah. A number of Duane Syndrome cases are covered. Related video can be found in this collection at: Duane's Syndrome Type...
    • Duane's Syndrome; Duane's Type I; Duane's Type III;
    • Bilateral iris colobomas

    • coloboma.jpg
    • Coloboma literally means a "gap"-and can be used to describe any fissure, hole, or gap in the eye. The term most often is used to refer to a congenital gap in the disc, retina, the choroid, and the iris. Colobomas occur because the embryonic...
    • Congenital pupillary abnormalities; Pupil; Pupil Disorders/etiology; Pupil Disorders/pathology; Correctopia
    • Color Vision Testing

    • Color_Vision
    • Demonstration of color vision examination.
    • Examination, Ocular; Color Vision
    • Cone Dystrophy

    • Cone Dystrophy.pdf
    • PPT covering Cone Dystrophy - An inherited degeneration that presents between 10 - 30 years of age. Symptoms are decreased visual acuity, poor color vision, and sometimes light sensitivity.
    • Cone Dystrophy; central cone dystrophy
    • Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    • Digre_AION
    • PPT describing Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy (AION). Covers clinical signs, such as monocular vision loss, swollen nerve, and visual field defects, as well as risk factors.
    • Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
    • Exophthalmometry

    • Exophthalmometry
    • Demonstration of exophthalmometry examination.
    • Examination, Ocular; Exophthalmometry
    • Eyelid Measurements

    • Eyelid_Measurements
    • Demonstration of eyelid measurements examination.
    • Examination, Ocular; Eyelid Measurements
    • Structures of the iris

    • Figure-01
    • Structures of the iris. The a indicates the anterior border layer that terminates at the pigmentary ruff of the pupillary border (b). The c indicates the iris sphincter muscle, which is oriented circumferentially within the stroma and located deep...
    • autonomic anatomy; iris
    • Anatomy of the pupillary light reflex pathway

    • Figure-02
    • Anatomy of the pupillary light reflex pathway. (Miller NR: Walsh And Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, p 421. Vol 2, 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1985, with permission.)
    • Reflex, Pupillary; Parasympathetic Pupil

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